Davening Shacharit

Question:

What is one halachically required to say each morning as part of Shacharit?


Answer:

1. The following is the minimal halachic requirement: Birkoth haShachar (without Birkot haTorah, which were intended for someone who rises very early, before Kriyat Shema, in order to study Torah – see Talmud Bavli Brachot 11b and Rambam’s MT Tefillah 7:10), Kriyat Shema with the brachot, Tefillah Shemoneh Esrei (18 Brachot), a brief version of Nefilat Apayim (Tachanun), and Ashrei.


2. Pesukei dezimra was highly recommended by Hazal, as very precisely expressed by Rambam: וְשִׁבְּחוּ חֲכָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, לְמִי שֶׁקּוֹרֶא זְמִירוֹת מִסֵּפֶר תִּלִּים בְּכָל יוֹם (Tefillah 7:12). However, where there simply is not enough time to say Pesukei dezimra as well as that, which is obligatory (and should be said slowly and deliberately), it should be set aside. If one comes to shul late, one should focus on beginning the obligatory section (from Barchu onward) with the tzibur.


3. Rambam z’l made all this plain. He wrote (Tefillah 7:17):

סֵדֶר תְּפִלּוֹת, כָּךְ הוּא: בַּשַּׁחַר, מַשְׁכִּים אָדָם וּמְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ, וְקוֹרֶא הַזְּמִירוֹת וּמְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶן וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶן. וְקוֹרֶא אֶת שְׁמַע וּמְבָרֵךְ לְפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ, וּמְדַלֵּג הַקְּדֻשָּׁה מִבְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ, שְׁאֵין הַיָּחִיד אוֹמֵר קְדֻשָּׁה; וְכִשְׁהוּא חוֹתֵם גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִיָּד יַעֲמֹד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּסְמֹךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה, וּמִתְפַּלֵּל מֵעוֹמֵד כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. וּכְשֶׁיַּשְׁלִים, יֵשֵׁב וְיִפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו, וּמִתְחַנֵּן; וּמַגְבִּיהַּ רֹאשׁוֹ, וּמִתְחַנֵּן מְעַט וְהוּא יוֹשֵׁב, בְּדִבְרֵי תַּחֲנוּנִים. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִקְרָא "תְּהִלָּה, לְדָוִד"( תהילים קמה,א ) וְיִתְחַנַּן כְּפִי כּוֹחוֹ, וְיִפָּטֵר לְמַעֲשָׂיו


1st of Tevet, 5771 Tuesday, 07 December 2010

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